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金龙鱼(Scleropages: Osteoglossomorpha)化石的首次发现
2017-01-18 | 编辑: | 【

作者:张江永,Mark V H WILSON

摘要:金龙鱼化石的鳞片和骨骼碎片在过去时有报道,但鉴定并非十分可靠,因为在骨舌鱼科鱼类中这些鳞片和骨骼十分相似。首次记述了保存完美的金龙鱼化石,标本产于湖南湘乡下湾铺组和湖北松滋洋溪组,确立为骨舌鱼科金龙鱼属一新种:中华金龙鱼Scleropages sinensis sp. nov.。新种与现生金龙鱼(Scleropages)在头部骨骼、尾骨骼、各鳍的形状和位置以及具有网状鳞片等方面极为相似,因而归入该属。然而,新种在以下特征上不同于金龙鱼的现生种:鼻骨无纹饰,鼻骨上的感觉管显露于沟内,感觉管联合不经过顶骨,翼耳骨侧向加厚,眶前骨上的感觉孔大,眼眶后的眶下骨不完全覆盖前鳃盖骨上支,其宽高比例为0.75而非现生种的1?.2, 前鳃盖骨后下角变尖,鳃盖骨后下缘凹形、下端变尖,匙骨背突长大,脊椎46?8, 椎体横突短小,胸鳍十分长大,上下两端的尾鳍条和内部鳍条等长。亚洲的现生种发现于各种河流和小溪中,比较喜欢水草茂盛的静水环境,一般游弋于表层水中,以鱼虾、昆虫等为食,新种中华金龙鱼也应该有相似的生长环境和食性。新种似具有性二形性,雄鱼体形略纤细,头部略大,口裂更深。中华金龙鱼化石的发现,说明金龙鱼属(Scleropages)和骨舌鱼属(Osteoglossum)在早始新世以前就已经分化,这对解释骨舌鱼类的跨洋分布具有十分重要的意义。


First complete fossil Scleropages (Osteoglossomorpha)

  ZHANG Jiang-Yong, Mark V H WILSON

Abstract A new species of osteoglossid fish, Scleropages sinensis sp. nov., is described from the Early Eocene Xiwanpu Formation in Hunan and the Yangxi Formation in Hubei, China. The new species was attributed to Scleropages, an extant genus of Osteoglossidae, because it very closely resembles the genus in skull bones, caudal skeleton, the shape and position of fins, and reticulate scales. The new fish is very similar to extant Scleropages except: the nasals do not appear to be ornamented; the sensory pore in the antorbital is large; the posterior infraorbitals are not quite covering the dorsal limb of the preopercle; the posteroventral angle of the preopercle is produced to point; the posteroventral margin of the opercle is concave and the ventral end of the bone is produced to a point; the pectoral fin is very long and extends well behind the beginning of the pelvic fin; the vertebral count is about 46?8; the parapophyses are shorter and the upper and lower caudal rays are nearly as long as the inner rays. The new fish is closer to its Asian neighbor, S. formosus, than to its southern relative, S. leichardti. Scleropages formosus inhabits natural lakes, swamps, flooded forests, and slowly moving, deep parts of rivers with overhanging vegetative cover. It is a carnivorous fish and its food consists mainly of insects, fishes, worms, small amphibians, small mammals, and even birds. S. sinensis may live in the same natural environment and have a similar diet except for the largest items. Sexual dimorphism may exist in S. sinensis. The presumed male has a slimmer and shallower body, a relatively larger head, and a deeper mouth cleft. The discovery of Scleropages sinensis sp. nov. dates the divergence of Scleropages and Osteoglossum to no later than the Early Eocene.
Key words Hunan, Hubei, China; Early Eocene; Xiawanpu Formation; Yangxi Formation; Osteoglossidae

First complete fossil Scleropages (Osteoglossomorpha).pdf
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